Friday, July 26, 2013

Sociolanguistic subject -verbal and non verbal language




Verbal language  is communication that use words to deliver the message.
Non-Verbal language is Communication without words,Communication can not be expressed by words. Includes, gesture, body movement, eyes movement ect. That is the process of communicating what you are feeling or thinking by the way you place and move your body rather than by words. Being able to 'read' non verbal language therefore helps us greatly:
·         To know how people feel and what they mean, and
·         To understand better how people might be perceiving our own non-verbal signals, and (often overlooked)
·         To understand ourselves better, deeper than the words we hear ourselves saying.
Chracteristic of nonverbal language:
1.      It’s linked to our emotions :
·         Most NV is instrinsic or it's connected with our inner feelings or emotions
·         The instrinsic nature of NV cues leads us to perceive them as more truthful and genuationine than verbal communic
2.      It’s continuous:
·         It's continuous means that NV messages flow in continuous or steady streams of cues rather than individual distinct bits of information
3.      It’s highly contextual
·         NV messages often get their prcise meaning from the communication context
·         Non verbal language depends on context, non verbal language in a certain situation might not mean the same in another.
4.      It’s influenced by culture and gender
·         The way we used and undrstandNv message is also depends on the cultural knowledge and values
·         A gesture by one person in a certain situation can carry far more, or very little meaning, compared to the same gesture used by a different person in a different situation.
Young men for example often display a lot of pronounced gestures because they are naturally energetic, uninhibited and supple. Older women, relatively, are less energetic, adopt more modest postures, and are prevented by clothing and upbringing from exhibiting very pronounced gestures.
Types of nonverbal language:

1.      KinesicsIs the interpretation of body language or body movement. Orthe study of the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of non-verbal communication.Such as : facial expression and gesture
Types of kinesics:

v  Emblems is Gesture with specific cultural meaning attached
Such as : thumb
ü  In the US it’s a symbol for good job
ü  In germany it’s the number one
ü  In the japan it’s the number five
ü  In ghana it’s insult
ü  In malaysia it’s to point rather than a finger

Nodding head :
ü  In central africa doesn’t mean ‘yes’
ü  Shaking his head doesn’t mean ‘not’

v  Regulators is often used as feedback to find out if one is clear of the instruction is given or if the audience is interested in the speech
Such as :
ü  The white american students may use sound such as “ uh..huuh” followed by nodding of head to indicate understand
ü  The black american students use silence to show understanding

v  Illustrators  :Are used  more consistently to illustrate what is being saidtoreinforcewords of speaker. Such as Pointing to something that you’re discussing

v  Affective display :Are body or more frequently facial movements that display a certain affective state.Such as Facial expression & gestures that augment the verbal expression of feelings (sad, surprised, happy ect). Actually there are six universal facial expressions - recognized around the world are Happiness,Sadness, Fear, Disgust,Surprise, and Anger.

v  Adaptors :Include postural changes and other movements at a low level/ unconscious gesture of awareness frequently made to feel more comfortable/ to perform a specific physical function. Such as, Croosed legs and arms shows unwillingness to listen while uncrossed arms and leg indicate that you are approachable.


2.      Proxemics (Closeness)is Study of how we use space and distance
Includes seating arrangements, queuing and territoriality. Proxemics is the technical term for the personal space aspect of body language. - is defined as (the study of) the amount of space that people find comfortable between themselves and others.Personal space dimensions depend notably on the individual, cultural and living background, the situation, and relationships, however some general parameters apply to most people, which for Western societies, are shown below.The 'science' of where people sit in relation to each other, and on what and around what, is fascinating and offers opportunities for improving relationships, communications, cooperation and understanding.

3.     Haptics (Touching)
Haptics, the study of human touch, from the Greek word haptikos, meaning able to touch. The word haptics in this sense entered the English language in the 1800s, which indicates when human touch began to be a serious area of study.Physical contact such as holding, hitting, kissing, stroking, shaking hands, guiding

4.     Occulesics ( Eye Movement)
Our eyes are a very significant aspect of the non-verbal signals we send to others.Eyes - and especially our highly developed awareness of what we see in other people's eyes - are incredible.Incredibly also, we can see whether another person's eyes are focused on us or not, and we can detect easily the differences between a 'glazed over' blank stare, a piercing look, a moistening eye long before tears come, and an awkward or secret glance.
Such as :
ü  Signals for rubbing eye or eyes has possible meaning disbelief, upset, or tiredness. Rubbing eyes or one eye can indicate disbelief, as if checking the vision, or upset, in which the action relates to crying, or tiredness, which can be due boredom, not necessarily a need for sleep. If the signal is accompanied by a long pronounced blink, this tends to support the tiredness interpretation.

5.     Olfactics (Smell)
Smell - certain smells are attractive to females but it's a complex and highly personal area yet to be understood well. Such as Perfumes and deodorants send powerful messages, as can the natural body odours we try to suppress.

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