Friday, July 26, 2013

ASSIMILATION AND ELISION

PAPER
ASSIMILATION AND ELISION

 







LECTURER : RAHMANITA, M.Pd

CREATED BY :
1.      TRI IBRAHIM (11 2010 001)
2.      HERI SYAFE’I (11 2010 029)
3.      DINDA ASELA
4.      MIRA ASMARA


PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS ISLAM OKI (UNISKI) KAYUAGUNG
TAHUN AKADEMIK 2011-2012



Abstract
Assimilation has a very precise meaning when it’s related to studies of languages. Is a common phonological process bye which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like another segment in a word. In other words it’s when a letter (sound) is influenced by the letter (sound) before or after it so that it changes its sound and/or spelling. The word assimilation it self it’s said to be assimilated; it is derived from the latin prefix ad- meaning to and simil- meaning like but, instead of being adsimilated, it has the easier pronunciation of assimilated.
Remember that the target of a phonological rule of assimilation is the sound that undergoes a change, while the trigger is the sound that "spreads" its features to the target.
"Elision of sounds can . . . be seen clearly in contracted forms like isn't (is not), I'll (I shall/will), who's (who is/has), they'd (they had, they should, or they would), haven't (have not) and so on. We see from these examples that vowels or/and consonants can be elided. In the case of contractions or words like library (pronounced in rapid speech as /laibri/), the whole syllable is elided."

Introduction
assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words. In rapid speech, for example, "handbag" is often pronounced [ˈhambag], and "hot potato" as [ˈhɒppəteɪtoʊ]. Or in the other word Assimilation is a phonological process where a phone becomes similar to a nearby phone.
Elision is very simply the omission of certain sounds in certain contexts. elisions are the counterpart to epentheses, because they delete segments
like epentheses they usually facilitate articulation.



Discusion
A.    Assimilation
an assimilation is characterized by four parameters:
(1) affected sounds (targets)
which sounds are assimilated?
(2) triggering sounds (triggers)
which sounds cause the assimilation?
(3) phonetic feature
which feature(s) is/are changed on the target?
(4) direction
in which direction does the assimilation occur?
direction
regressive assimilation
the process is directed backwards, i.e. from right to left i.e. the target preceeds the trigger
progressive assimilation
the process is directed forwards, i.e. from left to right i.e. the target follows the trigger

[Im]                                 [In]                                  [I ŋ]
i[m]potent                        i[n]direct                         i[ŋ]conclusive
i[m]partial                        i[n]dependent                  i[ŋ]considerate
i[m]possible                     i[n]tolerance                    i[ŋ]correct
i[m]practical                    i[n]sufferable                   i[ŋ]complete
i[m]mature                       i[n]sufficient                  i[ŋ]convenient
i[m]balance                                                              i[ŋ]gratitude

The nasal in the prefix in- has the same place of articulation as the following consonant:
[m] before [p, b, m]
[n] before [t, d, s]
[ŋ] before [k, g]
We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant.

Consider the following data:
i[n]advisable
i[n]animate
i[n]ordinate
i[n]eligible

Based on these data, [In] occurs in the most environments: before vowels, t, d, s.
Therefore, we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /In/.
/In/ => [Im] / ___ bilabial consonants
ð  [I ŋ] / ___ velar consonants
ð  [In] elsewhere
Assimilation comes in two types:
(1) Complete (total) assimilation: one phone becomes identical to another phone.
Complete assimilation of nasals in Biblical Hebrew
perfect verb                                        imperfect verb
C1VùC2VC3                                     yiC1C2VC3
kaùtab                                                yiktab              write
naùpal                                                 yippol              fall
naùtan                                                yitten               give
naùga ʃ                                               yigga ʃ             approach

(2) Partial assimilation: one phone acquires the same feature as another phone (place, manner, voicing, height, backness, rounding, etc.)

Assimilation has a very precise meaning when it’s related to studies of languages. Is a common phonological process bye which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like another segment in a word. In other words it’s when a letter (sound) is influenced by the letter (sound) before or after it so that it changes its sound and/or spelling. The word assimilation it self it’s said to be assimilated; it is derived from the latin prefix ad- meaning to and simil- meaning like but, instead of being adsimilated, it has the easier pronunciation of assimilated.

A common example of assimilation is “don’t be silly” where the /n/ and /t/ are assimilated to /m/ by the following /b/, in many accents the natural sound is “dombe silly”.

Assimilation can be synchronic being an active process in a language at a given point in time or diachronic being a historical sound change. There are 4 configurations found: the increase in phonetic similarity may be between adjacent segments or between segments separated by one or more intervening segments; the changes could be in reference to a preceding segment or a following one. Even when all four occur, it changes in regard to a following adjacent segment account for virtually all assimilatory changes. Assimilation to an adjacent segment are vastly more frequent than assimilation to a non-adjacent one.

If a sound changes with reference to a following segment, it is called “regressive assimilation”, the changes with reference to a preceding segment are called “progressive assimilation”. A lot of people find these terms very confusing because they seem to mean the opposite of the intended meaning. To avoid the problem exist a variety of alternative terms. “Regressive assimilation” is also known as right to left, leading or reciprocal assimilation. “Progressive assimilation” is known as left to right or preservative, lagging or lag assimilation.

Occasionally two sounds may influence one another in reciprocal assimilation. When such a change results in a single segment with some of the features of both components, it is known as coalescence or fusion.

1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/ 
5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
6. / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g /
7. / s / changes to /ʃ/ before /ʃ/ or / j / 
8. / z / changes to /ʒ/ before /ʃ/ or / j /
9. /θ/ changes to / s / before / s / 

B.      Elision
Elision is very simply the omission of certain sounds in certain contexts. The most important occurrences of this phenomenon regard: 
1)     Alveolar consonants /t/ and /d/ when ‘sandwiched’ between two consonants (CONS – t/d – CONS), e.g.
The next day….   
/ðə ˈneks ˈdeɪ/
The last car…     
/ðə ˈlɑ:s ˈkɑ:/
Hold the dog! 
/ˈhəʊl ðə ˈdɒg/
Send Frank a card.    
/sen ˈfræŋk ə ˈkɑ:d
This can also take place within affricates /t§/ and /d½/ when preceded by a consonant, e.g. 
lunchtime
/ˈlʌntʃtaɪm/  
become
/ˈlʌnʃtaɪm
strange days
/ˈstreɪndʒˈdeɪz/   
/ˈstreɪnʒˈdeɪz
The phoneme /t/ is a fundamental part of the negative particle not, the possibility of it being elided makes the foreign students life more difficult. Consider the negative of can – if followed by a consonant the /t/ may easily disappear and the only difference between the positive and the negative is a different, longer vowel sound in the second: 
I can speak….  
  /aɪ kən ˈspi:k
I can’t speak… 
/aɪ ˈkɑ:n(t) ˈspi:k
Note that when can’t is followed by a vowel, e.g. ‘I can’t  eat’, the /t/ is not elided.
Can something similar happen to didn’t
 2)     A second form involves the omission of the schwa /\/ before liquids /l/ and /r/, e.g.
secretar
/ˈsekrət(ə)ri/
camera
/ˈkæm(ə)rə/
memory
/ˈmem(ə)ri
In some cases this elision may be optional (dictionaries usually represent the optional sound in italics e.g. /ˈlʌnʃtaɪm, in others it is the norm.



REFERENCES



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